There is probably no accurate historical record of all of the allied city-states who fought with Sparta and Athens. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. With the support of the Athenians, the Argives succeeded in forging a coalition of democratic states within the Peloponnese, including the powerful states of Mantinea and Elis. I'm writing a paper on Sparta in the Peloponnesian Wars and now that I've gotten to the part that 'Sparta had superior allies', I realized I cant exactly write a persuasive paper if I'm not fully sure who exactly were the people helping the Spartans in the Wars (besides Persia and Corinth of course). Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, whereas the Athens empire, though based on a peninsula, had developed impressive naval power. In other words to end the war which is costing so much. -404 B.C Athens surrender to Sparta and her allies. Conflict between the states flared up again in 465 BC, when a helot revolt broke out in Sparta. The trial resulted in the execution of six of Athens's top naval commanders. The people of Syracuse were ethnically Dorian (as were the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their ally in Sicilia, were Ionian. -One-third of the population of Athens died. The Spartan fleet under Callicratidas lost 70 ships and the Athenians lost 25 ships. The delay was costly and forced the Athenians into a major sea battle in the Great Harbor of Syracuse. 2021 © gradesfixer.com. Want us to write one just for you? The Athenians had the stronger navy and were better stable with money than their enemies and the Spartans had the stronger army. A further source of provocation was an Athenian decree, issued in 433/2 BC, imposing stringent trade sanctions on Megarian citizens (once more a Spartan ally after the conclusion of the First Peloponnesian War). This peace was broken around 415 when the Athenians launched a massive assault/threat against Sicily. Perhaps worst of all, the nearby silver mines were totally disrupted, with as many as 20,000 Athenian slaves freed by the Spartan hoplites at Decelea. After his defection, Alcibiades claimed to the Spartans that the Athenians planned to use Sicily as a springboard for the conquest of all of Italy and Carthage, and to use the resources and soldiers from these new conquests to conquer the Peloponnese. Insisted by the demagogue Cleon the Athenians had a vote to massacre the men of Mytilene and unfortunately enslave everyone else. Aegina, an island strategically located off the coast of Attica, and a member of the Peloponnesian League, was besieged and conquered by Athens. They were supported in this by Argos, a powerful state within the Peloponnese that had remained independent of Lacedaemon. Upon arriving, he raised up a force from several Sicilian cities, and went to the relief of Syracuse. Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were almost exclusively land-based powers, able to summon large land armies which were very nearly unbeatable (thanks to the legendary Spartan forces). This was the period in which a diplomatic maneuvers gave the way to small-scale military operations as every city tried to win smaller states over to its side. [36], A symbolic peace treaty was signed by the mayors of Athens and Sparta 2,400 years after the war ended, on March 12, 1996. We’ve got you covered. This ushered in the final phase of the war, generally referred to either as the Decelean War, or the Ionian War. The war between Athens and Sparta was the Peloponnesian War. During the first phase, known as the Archidamian War, Sparta launched repeated invasions of Attica while Athens took advantage of its naval supremacy to raid the Peloponnese coast. [11] These sanctions, known as the Megarian decree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historians have noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empire would have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered the decree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. this essay is not unique. As a result, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles.The Spartan strategy during the Archidamian War was to invade the lan… b. [3] Tissaphernes also helped fund the Peloponnesian fleet. This was a direct violation of the Thirty Years' Peace, which had (among other things) stipulated that the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League would respect each other's autonomy and internal affairs. The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. As prominent historian J. We provide you with original essay samples, perfect formatting and styling. Here is where the Peticles declined to attract the superior allied forces but instead insisted the Athenians to keep to their city and harras the enemies coast and shipping. The warring states created an unexpected alliance; each agreed to come to one another’s aid if they were attacked. Are you interested in getting a customized paper? The following year (404) starved by the massive war the Athens surrendered. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable. He prevented the Athenian fleet from attacking Athens; instead, he helped restore democracy by more subtle pressure. Even afterwards the navy was also beaten and the Athenians were horribly destroyed and now they tried to retreat. First, their foes were lacking in initiative. In 430 BC an outbreak of a plague hit Athens. Their treasury was nearly empty, its docks were depleted, and many of the Athenian youth were dead or imprisoned in a foreign land. The Spartans and Athenians agreed to exchange the hostages for the towns captured by Brasidas, and signed a truce. Following the destruction of the Sicilian Expedition, Lacedaemon encouraged the revolt of Athens's tributary allies, and indeed, much of Ionia rose in revolt against Athens. After gaining reinforcements in 413, the Athenian army was defeated once again. To learn more about the Peloponnesian War, a little bit of a background on these two leading city-states. With winter approaching, the Athenians were then forced to withdraw into their quarters, and they spent the winter gathering allies and preparing to destroy Syracuse. 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